When Disaster Risk Management meets Land Administration
Land administration systems (LAS) are typically built to operate in relatively stable environments. The aim is to record people-to-land relationships as they change – generally slowly – over time. This might happen through a market transaction, inheritance, or some other means. Meanwhile, Disaster Risk Management (DRM) typically assumes a dynamic, if not chaotic, environment. After a disaster occurs, the aim is to quickly assess and triage damage, injury and loss of life, and respond with medicine, food, water, housing and basic infrastructure.
Of course, most disasters happen on land: this is where the people live. So what happens when DRM meets LAS? Unfortunately, the answer is often very little, or even worse, conflicting information, advice and responses. For example, following flood or earthquake disasters, DRM approaches often seek to move or resettle individuals and communities. However, the LAS processes needed to support these moves, even for temporary reasons, can often take many weeks, months, or even years to complete. The result is informal settlement formation, or rebuilding on disaster-affected land and ultimately poverty for those left homeless and landless.
Building a bridge between LAS and DRM
This is where the PhD work of Senior Geodetic Advisor, Eva-Maria Unger seeks to make an impact. She spent the last 5 years working to build a bridge between LAS and DRM. New conceptual thinking has established a link between the key LAS constructs of land, people, and rights - to the core concepts in DRM of hazard, vulnerability and exposure.
Combined LA-DRM data model
This theoretical linkage has been converted into a practical data model by embedding new attributes into the ISO 19152 LADM standard. What this means is that a combined LA-DRM data model now exists to support data capture, management and response following a disaster. A whole workflow to support usage of the data model has also been created. The collected data can be used to ensure DRM responses better take into account people-to-land relations. Even better, the DRM response can actually be used to enhance land tenure security, that may have been limited even before the disaster occurred.
Trial in Nepal
The data model has been packaged up into a software tool and was trialled in Nepal, where previously two major earthquakes impacted on livelihoods around Kathmandu and remote areas in 2015. The results of the data recording and mapping initiative were able to show that government LAS requirements were impeding households from accessing grants for compensation and rebuilding. These findings have been used to further support changes to Nepal’s national land policies in 2019.
Impact on global development
The results from the study have implications for LA and DRM policy development globally. The two domains are closely related, but, have not adequately leveraged off the knowledge and tools available in each. Unger’s work is now assisting how to transfer the policy lessons both global-to-local levels, and also between the different domains, via the UN-GGIM’s IGIF and Framework for Effective Land Administration (FELA).
Read the full thesis of Eva-Maria Unger on the website Library ITC University of Twente.
Further recommendations for reading
- 'Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction' on the UNDRR website
- UN-FFIM Framework for Effective Land Administration 'Application of geospatial information related to land administration and management' (pdf) on the UN-GGIM website
- 'FIG 38: The Contribution of the Surveying Profession to Disaster Risk Management' on the FIG website
- 'FIG 65: The Surveyor’s Role in Monitoring, Mitigating, and Adapting to Climate Change' on the FIG website
- 'FIG 68: The FIG Christchurch Declaration: Responding to Climate Change and Tenure Insecurity in Small Island Developing States' on the FIG website
- 'Land Tenure and Climate Vulnerability' on the GLTN website
- 'Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – A Country Level Implementation Strategy for Nepal' om the GLTN website
Enhancing land tenure security in Nepal
Recovery from disaster is challenging due to the geography and economic situation. Also not all land rights are recognized and recorded. This hampers the government to prepare and mitigate to disasters pro-actively and delays post-disaster recovery. The devastating earthquake in 2015 made this very clear. Enhance land tenure security was demanded to speed up the recovery from disaster.
Pilots applying Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration
The land professionals in Nepal have embraced the challenges and are making efforts to implement Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration (FFP LA) Strategy to document all people-to-land relationships. In several areas pilots are conducted, applying FFP LA approaches. The pilots focus on recordation of customary and informal land rights and disaster risk management. The results of the pilots will help to define the roadmap for scaling up of tenure security.
AbroadThis article was published in Abroad edition September 2019. Read the complete Abroad.
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Global Geospatial Policy Developments: linking LA and DRM
The United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) was established by resolution in July 2011. For the first time it provides a nexus for globally policy development and advocacy for the creation, availability and application of geospatial information. Importantly, UN-GGIM is dealing directly with both LA and DRM. The two areas are increasingly being linked at policy, organisational and even technical levels.
FELA and SFGISD
Two frameworks are under development:
- The Framework for Effective Land Administration (FELA)
- The Strategic Framework for Geospatial Information Services for Disasters (SFGISD)
SFGISD builds from the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030), whilst FELA aggregates globally accepted land administration and management concepts from the FIG, FAO, UN-Habitat and World Bank – incorporating the concepts FFPLA and LADM.
Potential improvement collaboration LA and DRM
Both frameworks provide strategic insights on issues relating to governance, accountability, law and policy making, financing, partnerships, data needs and innovation, standards, awareness and capacity and education. Both frameworks are currently undergoing review and endorsement procedures throughout 2019 and 2020. Combined, they have the potential to improve collaboration and harmonization between LA and DRM at all levels and supporting the achievement of the SDGs.
Tropical deforestation due to poor land administration
If tropical deforestation were a country, it would be the third-biggest emitter globally. Lower than the U.S. but higher than the EU. Much tropical deforestation results from forest fires: burning forests to make space for agriculture. Carbon stored in trees and soils goes up in smoke.
Illegal deforestation and poor land administration
Brazil is the country that loses most tropical primary rainforest. A structural problem in the Brazilian Amazon is poor land administration. Illegal deforestation goes hand-in-hand with fraudulent land titles and land speculation.
Break the crime cycle
Improved land administration can break the crime cycle. Forests managed by local (indigenous) people generally harbor more carbon and biodiversity than unprotected areas. A criminological pilot showed that when people have a stake in forest preservation, they actively protect rainforest. Improved land administration can thus become a strategy to halting tropical deforestation and global climate change.
AbroadThis article was published in Abroad edition September 2019. Read the complete Abroad.
You may also receive the newsletter Abroad quarterly by e-mail. For this, please fill in the form.
Implementation of the National Land Use Zoning Plan in Bhutan
Implementation of national land use zoning plan
Bhutan experiences many challenges such as extreme temperatures and snowfall, storms and draught in the highlands but also heavy rain at the foot of the mountains and the southern belt with landslides and floods as a consequence. Because of these challenges and specific topography, available land is scarce for agricultural produce, human settlement, infrastructure and other land related development. A cross-sectoral policy perspective on national land use and management is lacking.
Aim of our support
Our support aims to help the government of Bhutan to enable society to make optimal, sensible and sustainable use of the limited land and water resources in their country. This is facilitated through the establishment of a harmonised national land use zoning plan in Bhutan which leads to a solid basis for establishing land use ordinances and enforcement.
Activities and intended results
A data sharing plan and a zoning plan in a pilot area will be developed by the end of 2020. The support consists of a technical part (data sharing protocol and development of zoning plan) and an institutional part (coordination of geo-data and participatory planning).
Furthermore, a monitoring and evaluation plan is developed to ensure quality, evaluate key reforms of the NLUZ project and safeguard the inter-disciplinary use of the NLUZ processes and to promote self-learning.
Duration of the project
2019 - 2020
More info and contact
If you want more information about the project or if you want to contact us, please fill in the contactform.
Can you solve our spatial problems? Play Move a lot!
Kadaster has launched the game Move a Lot. Move a Lot is a puzzle game in which you re-parcel land within a certain time, solving spatial problems.
The central question of Move a Lot is: How do we best manage the little space we have in the Netherlands? While playing through the game you will encounter a wide range of topics such as: agriculture, infrastructure, real estate, water, energy and nature.
The strength of area development
The game is part of our program ‘The strength of area development’. This year we look at the fact that we have been playing a role in improving land use for a 100 years. We use this as an opportunity to engage our partners in talks about the future of land development. We also want to show how the Netherlands is developing spatially and raise awareness.
You can download Move a Lot in the Apple app store and Google Play store.
The story of a farmer who wanted to grow apples
Imagine, you are a Nepalese farmer who wants to start an apple orchard on the land that belonged to your grandfather. Enthusiastically, you start planting the first few trees. You go to the bank to apply for a loan. But then they tell you that you need a certificate to proof you own the land. Even though your parents and grandparents have always worked this land, it turns out the land registry does not have this certificate.
Obtaining a certificate turns out to be more difficult than you expected, you become desperate and your family’s future becomes more uncertain every day. Why is the government making this so hard? It must be possible to simplify all this?
For 70% of the world’s population, a story like this is reality. These people are being chased from the land they have been living on for generations and generations. They are victims of conflicts over land, sometimes even resulting in death. A good land administration is the basis for a solid society. Legal certainty – knowing what belongs to whom – is of great importance. But often, the procedures to achieve this are complicated and not transparent.
Together with the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kadaster is working on methods and technologies to make this process easier, more affordable and faster. Our ambition is land rights for all within one generation.
This animation film shows why things must change (length of film: 5 minutes).
Call for programme evaluator LAND programme
Scope of the Evaluation
The evaluation is expected to cover the following programme components:
- Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration progress and development (within this programme)
- Partnership performance
- Programme set-up and execution
- Recommendations for follow-up and scaling up (impact level)
The total duration of the evaluation will be 15 working days within the period of 25 June – 3 August 2018, and will result in an Evaluation Report written in English.
- Profound knowledge and proven experience in Evaluation, Assessments and Monitoring of Development programmes, Government to Government projects and practical experience with the implementation of donor funded capacity building and knowledge exchange projects advising national and local governments in developing countries/countries with the transition economy
- Understanding of land governance and/or land administration issues related to implementation of the Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration approach
- Excellent writing skills
- Fluency in English required
The expert that is selected and carries out proper programme evaluation will be remunerated. Both professional and academic experts in the field of land administration are welcome.
A request for the Terms of Reference or any other queries can be addressed to Ms. Suzanne Valkman at firstname.lastname@example.org. To apply, please send your motivation and CV to the same email address. Please note that the deadline for application is June 1st, 2018. It is our aim to have the selection concluded by 15th June 2018.
New video about Fit-for-Purpose pilot projects in Colombia
General terms and conditions amended
On July 25 the Kadaster amended its general terms and conditions for the provision of its products and services, as a result of further insight into the Kadaster’s position as defined in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A passage concerning invoicing has also been deleted.
Study visit to Kadaster by Brazilian cadastral authorities
The Secretaria da Receita Federal, part of the Finances Ministry, is responsible for managing federal taxes. They integrate information about people and enterprises.
Prepare pilot SINTER: a new integrated cadastral system
For land taxes, Receita Federal took part in a project of integrating their information with data of the Registration Offices and the INCRA (Rural Land Reform and Cadastral Institution), thus georeferencing 70% of the country surface in terms of land ownership. The next step for Receita Federal is to integrate the mapped urban information of all 5558 municipalities with all other available information. This is a challenge: Brazil does not have one nationwide land administration system, but many decentralized systems. The purpose of the study visit was to prepare a pilot for SINTER, the new integrated cadastral system in Campinas, Belo Horizonte and Fortaleza; cities with good urban cadastres.
During the study visit, Kadaster shared experiences about the land administration process, property valuation and taxation, and the national spatial data infrastructure.
Optimising cadastral data collection in Benin
In March 2019 l’Agence du Domaine et du Foncier (ANDF), in partnership with Kadaster, commenced the first pilot testing new methodologies for optimising the process of cadastral data collection. The methodology should be fast, affordable and good-enough to meet the needs of all in society.
Inclusiveness is key
In the pilot taking place in Tori-Bossito (Southern Benin), a configuration of Emlid Reach GNSS rovers and base, combined with the MapIT GIS app, is being tested. Besides selecting the most appropriate equipment, we also design the optimal method of involving land owners, users, and key community stakeholders: inclusiveness will be key in the new methodology. Besides a methodology that fits the purpose for individual parcels, the pilot will reveal a realistic understanding of time and costs required to scale-up the approach for all of Benin.
Post-disaster ‘mapathon’ for Mozambique
That’s why the International Red Cross made a ‘Missing Maps’ appeal to the world. Several Kadaster employees used their free time to update the maps of the flooded areas, made available by the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap community.
Kadaster supports Beira
Kadaster is involved in a land administration project in the city of Beira. This city was hit first and is badly damaged. Fortunately, all produced data was saved thanks to periodic backups. The city hall, the project rooms and related equipment however were severely damaged. Kadaster is supporting the municipality of Beira in the needed reconstruction of the city hall. Together with all Dutch partners in this project, other project implications and related measures will be investigated.
Author: Martien Tomberg
Successful FIG Working Week in Hanoi
In addition, Kadaster actively contributes to various commissions, most notably 3, 7, 8 and the International Office for Cadastre and Land Records (OICRF). The commission work plans were presented and approved by the general assembly. Furthermore, a task force on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) was launched to focus on how the SDG’s relate to the surveying profession.
FIG 2020 Amsterdam
Next year, 10-14 May 2020, we will welcome the FIG community to Amsterdam. At the closing ceremony, the FIG flag was handed over to the Local Organising Committee of Amsterdam 2020, led by our colleague Paula Dijkstra. We look forward to welcoming you all next year, where ‘Smart Surveyors for Land and Water Management’ can familiarise with the Dutch surveying profession.
Author: Marije Louwsma
Strengthening Professional Access To Information About Land (SPATIAL) in the Western Balkans
Since 2017, Kadaster has been supporting its colleagues in the Western Balkan region to strengthen their professional access to information about land through this SPATIAL project: 8 agencies of 6 countries participated.
Sharing knowledge and experiences
More than 20 regional workshops were organized in which each of the participating organisations shared their experiences and knowledge on the selected theme of the workshop. Kadaster facilitated round table discussions and the definition of quick wins and actions for each organisation. The workshops, with over 240 participants, have strengthened the regional network, creating better understandings of the addressed topics.
The cooperation between the Agency for Real Estate Cadastre (AREC) of North Macedonia and Kadaster focused on three topics: implementation of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Strategy; development of the Address Registry; and updating of the Topographic Maps.
The cooperation between the Republic Geodetic Authority (RGA) of Serbia and Kadaster focused on drafting the NSDI strategy and legislation; support for mass property valuation; strengthening institutional and organisational capacity on Open Data, Key Registers; and becoming a more service oriented organisation.
Bosnia–Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro and Albania
For Bosnia–Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro and Albania emphasis was placed understanding the organisational and technological state-of-play. This was achieved through organising regional workshops, focussing on themes related to spatial data.
Goals for future cooperation
After 27 months, we have a good understanding of the status of all 8 agencies, their needs and their wishes for future cooperation with the Netherlands. The aim is to continue the cooperation and further strengthen professional access to information about land at both national and regional level.
The Kadaster in Jordan (Department of Land and Surveys; DLS) has the Prime Minister's assignment of being a paperless organization by 2020. This is not easy in a society where digital documents are not yet seen as reliable. In the end an efficient and transparent digital land administration system must be in place.
Digital land administration system
A first step towards this is to digitize all archives (both deeds and maps) and to integrate the files into the existing workflow. The Netherlands' Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster) helps DLS to develop a roadmap on how they can best handle this. Because of the experience in the Netherlands and in many other countries, DLS can learn a lot from both mistakes that were made and successes that were achieved. Eventually, a manual on how to handle this huge task ahead, will be the final product of this project.
In the presence of the Dutch and Swedish Ambassador, the agreement was signed by the Director General of DLS and Suzanne Valkman, Manager for the Asia and Middle East Region of Kadaster.
Dream project in Jordan successfully concluded
23 May the 'Closing Ceremony' of the EU Twinning project took place. The Dutch Ambassador congratulated the Jordanian Department of Land and Surveys (DLS), the lead partner Swedesurvey and Dutch Kadaster with all the achievements and fruitful spin-off. The EU Delegation named the project: a ‘dream project’ and wished they had more of these well-running projects!
Simplify procedures en enhance capacity of employees
During the project, efforts have been made to reduce discrepancies between the cadastral map and reality on the ground, representing building information in the cadastral system, simplifying procedures and enhancing the capacity of employees.
Also, physical adjustments have been made in one of DLS's main Land Registry Offices. For example, there is now a front office and a back office, which makes sure that registrars and notaries can now work without being constantly interrupted by customers who have questions. One of the registrars spoke the memorable words: "I feel like I’m in heaven! At last, I manage to concentrate and complete the difficult files”.